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Infections and Infestations

27
Feb

Polio

What is Polio?

Polio is a contagious viral infection caused by the polio virus. The most severe form of the disease includes paralysis and even death but this is uncommon. The virus usually spreads via the feco-oral route. There are three varieties of paralytic polio namely spinal, bulbar and bulbospinal depending upon the site of involvement of the central nervous system.


What are warts?

Warts are small growths caused by a viral infection with human papilloma virus (HPV). There are more than 100 varieties of HPV that are responsible for warts. Children are commonly affected with warts and usually the warts appear between 12 and 16 years. About 30% of the warts disappear spontaneously but after complete disappearance there may be a chance of reappearance of the warts.


22
Feb

Scarlet Fever

What is scarlet fever?

Scarlet fever is type of infectious disease that most commonly affects young children between the age group of 4 and 8 years. This disease arises in some following throat infection by the bacteria Streptococcus and is characterized by appearance of typical rash covering almost whole of the body, high fever and pain in the throat (sore throat).


About Syphilis

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease that occurs as a result of an infection with Treponema pallidum. Although it is usually transmitted via sexual contact, babies can contract the disease during birth from infected mothers. The symptoms of the disease depend upon the stage of the infection.


02
Feb

Tularemia

What is tularemia?

Tularemia is an infectious disease, occurs due to infection by the bacteria Francisella tularensis. The most commonly affected organs are the skin, eyes, lungs and lymph nodes but rarely internal organs may also be affected. Tularemia may lead to number of complications like inflammatory changes in the protective covering of the brain, the meninges (meningitis), lung tissue (pneumonia), protective covering of the heart, pericardium (pericarditis) and infection of the bone (osteomyelitis). The disease spread from mammals, birds, fish and contact with infected soil, water or dead animals.


What is rabies?

Rabies is a viral disease where the infecting rabies virus is transmitted to humans through bite of infected dogs. However, in the United States, the infection may spread by other animals like coyotes, raccoons, bat and skunks. The disease is almost always fatal after the appearance of symptoms.


25
Nov

Malaria

What is Malaria?

Malaria is an infectious disease characterized by repeated attacks of high fever with chills. The disease occurs due to infection by the Plasmodium parasite, which enters the body through biting of female Anopheles mosquito carrying the parasite. Malaria most commonly occurs in the tropical countries. Out of the five Plasmodium species of parasites, P.falciparum and P.vivax are responsible for most cases of malaria. Treatment options depend on the species of the infecting Plasmodium parasite, the severity of symptoms and age of the infected person.


What is jaw osteomyelitis?

Osteomyelitis is an inflammatory condition of bone that begins from an infection within the bone cavity. The infection is generally bacterial in origin and is most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Osteomyelitis can affect any bone in the body but has a predilection towards long bones and the jaw bones. Osteomyelitis affecting jaws is generally associated with dental complications. It was once a very serious disease with life threatening complication but these days it can be adequately treated with prompt medical intervention.


What is cholera?

Cholera is the bacterial infection of small bowel caused by Vibrio cholerae. Patients with cholera typically complain of excessive watery and frequent stool, often described as explosive diarrhea. Cholera occurs as a result of consuming water or food contaminated with the fecal material of cholera-infected person. Treatment is essential because if left untreated cholera patients may be life threatening due to dehydration. Oral rehydration solution is the mainstay of treatment along with antibiotics. In some serious cases intravenous fluid replacement may be necessary.


What is cellulitis?

Cellulitis is a condition of localized or diffuse skin infection by bacteria that extends into the deeper layers under the skin (subcutaneous tissue). The most common sites of infection include skin of the lower leg and face, although cellulitis can affect any parts of the body. Usually a break in the skin, even a minor abrasion, provides entry of infective bacteria into the body and deeper layers of tissue. Cellulitis can be effectively treated with antibiotics but if left untreated it can lead to life threatening complications like sepsis, shock and gangrene.