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Drugs and Addiction

22
Feb

Scarlet Fever

What is scarlet fever?

Scarlet fever is type of infectious disease that most commonly affects young children between the age group of 4 and 8 years. This disease arises in some following throat infection by the bacteria Streptococcus and is characterized by appearance of typical rash covering almost whole of the body, high fever and pain in the throat (sore throat).


What is acetaminophen poisoning?

Acetaminophen poisoning occurs due to an overdose of a commonly used painkiller drug acetaminophen (paracetamol). Poisoning with this drug is one of the most common causes of sudden onset liver failure.  In most cases of acetaminophen toxicity does not lead to any symptom within the first 24 hours but if present the symptoms include vague abdominal pain with nausea and vomiting followed by symptoms of acute liver failure.


What is mastitis?

Mastitis is the medical term for inflammation of the breast which occurs due to a bacterial infection of the breast tissue. It is characterized by painful breast swelling usually with high fever. The most common bacteria responsible for mastitis is Streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus, however other bacteria may also be responsible. Usually breastfeeding mothers are affected within one to three months of delivery. It can occur in non-pregnant women including after menopause.

Mastitis is women who are breastfeeding is known as lactation mastitis. The most serious complication of untreated mastitis is collection of pus in the breast tissue (abscess) which requires surgical management. Repeated attack of mastitis is quite common in women who have previously suffered from mastitis. Breastfeeding mothers should not discontinue nursing. Mastitis can be effectively treated with antibiotics and painkillers.


Definition

Pit and fissure sealants are materials that are applied over the grinding surfaces of molars and premolars to seal the fissure and prevent dental caries. It is a safe, efficient and effective method of prevention of pits and fissure caries.

Pits and Fissures

  • A pit is defined as a pinpoint depression located at the junction of grooves present over the grinding surfaces of the teeth.
  • A fissure is defined as a deep cleft between adjoining cusps of a molar or premolar.

Tooth Decay Definition

Dental caries, commonly known as tooth decay, is one of the most common dental diseases affecting the general population. It is caused by microbes infiltrating tiny cavities that form in the hard outer surface of the teeth. The bacteria casing dental caries lead to various chemical reactions on the surface of the tooth and some of these reactions cause localized demineralization of the tooth structures. Dental caries can severely compromise the tooth structure and eventually lead to loss of the tooth.


What is colon cancer?

Colon cancer is the cancer affecting the colon, the major portion of the large bowel. Usually the rectum is also affected and therefore colon cancer is now more commonly referred to collectively as colorectal cancer. Common symptoms are long term passage of loose stool, constipation (change of bowel habit) and bloody stool. Like any other cancer, the cause of colon cancer is not very clear, but increasing age, lifestyle habits along with genetic abnormalities are the common factors held responsible. Colon cancers if diagnosed at an early stage, when still confined to the walls of the colon, are curable with surgery. More advanced cases, where the ccancer that has spread to other regions of the body, are managed with chemotherapy (drugs), radiation and surgery.


The bowels are made up of the small intestine and large intestine which are the longest parts of the digestive tract (alimentary tract or gut). The intestines are important sites of digestion and absorption of nutrients and the formation of waste material that is evacuated from the bowels as feces. Like the rest of the gut, it has a multi-layered wall that is somewhat similar in structure from mouth to anus. Within the bowels are massive populations of bacteria which help with digestion and absorption of nutrients but usually do not harm the bowels.  This naturally-occurring ‘good’ bacteria is known as the normal intestinal flora. The bowels are affected by a number of insults, from infectious to mechanical and chemical, but is usually able to recover once the causative factor is removed.


Rhinitis is the inflammation of the nasal passages while sinusitis is the inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, the hollow air-filled cavities in the skull that drain into the nasal cavity. Both rhinitis and sinusitis are often related since these structures have a similar type of mucosal epithelial lining and communicate with each other. Pathology in one part can therefore extend and involve the other. The treatments for both rhinitis and sinusitis, although largely depending on the cause, are similar. Congestion caused by swelling of the epithelial lining coupled with excessive mucus production is the hallmark of both rhinitis and sinusitis. In rhinitis this is usually isolated to nasal congestion, whereas in sinusitis the congestion of the sinuses also extends to the nasal cavity and passages.


The body has several important mechanisms in place to prevent bleeding. This is collectively known as hemostasis and involves four major steps – vasoconstriction, platelet plug, blood clot formation and fibrous tissue growth. Some of these mechanisms take effect within seconds of a break in the blood vessel while others reach completion over minutes or even days. Although this process is known as hemostasis, it is commonly referred to as blood clotting. However it is important to note at the outset that blood clotting (coagulation) is actually only one step in the entire mechanism known as hemostasis.

A break in a blood vessel, either artery or vein, may occur for any number of reasons. Visible blood loss is more likely to occur with a cut of the skin that also severs a portion of the blood vessel. Internal bleeding is the term that is often used to describe bleeding within the  body which is not visible from the exterior. Micro-tears occur in blood vessels throughout the body on a daily basis and is unrelated to trauma but these tears are so small that it can be quickly and easily dealt with no significant blood loss.


Side Effects of Painkillers

Painkillers are being increasingly used in every household and these include both over the counter painkillers and the ones that are prescribed by doctors. Painkillers are used mostly for temporary relief from pain and are regularly used and prescribed for medical conditions such as migraines, arthritis, back injuries and others. Many a times, painkillers are prescribed for aiding in the recovery process after surgeries. As with any other product, excessive use of painkillers can have many side effects. Some of these side effects of painkillers are simple in nature and do not cause any severe harm. However, some other side effects of painkillers have been known to cause additional harmful complications in the human body. Medical practitioners ensure that they have some remedy for the painkillers suggested by them. But, patients taking over the counter painkillers should be extremely careful as they not bear the risk the harmful side effects of painkillers but may also lead to painkillers addiction if consumed in excess over a prolonged duration. There have been extensive studies reported in the side effects of painkillers. Pregnant women should be extra careful while taking painkillers as some of the painkillers may have undesired effects on the unborn kid. Some of the common side effects of painkillers which also manifest as painkiller addition symptoms are Constipation, Drowsiness, Addiction, Cardiovascular and Respiratory Effects and Mental Side Effects.

Painkillers Tablets

Source : flickr