Dental Health

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a condition of by profound impairment of the immune system. Various types of mouth lesions such as candidiasis, hairy cell leukoplakia and a range of gum diseases are prevalent in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In fact in some cases the oral manifestations itself can act as an indicator of a human immunodeficiency virus infection.

What is plasma cell gingivitis?

Plasma cell gingivitis is a condition that often consists of a mild enlargement of the gums at the marginal areas which may extend to the gums attached over the alveolar bone. The condition is also known as atypical gingivitis, plasma cell gingivostomatitis and plasma cell granuloma.
The condition was first reported in 1970s after an chewing gum ingredient caused allergic reaction leading to inflammation of the gums.

What is a dental composite?

Dental composite restorative material is the most commonly used tooth-colored restorative material in dental practice. It is a compound of two or more distinctly different materials with properties that are superior or intermediate to those of their individual constituents. Traditionally a dental composite refers to a mixture of silicate glass particles within an acrylic monomer which hardens by polymerization reactions.


Transalveolar extraction is commonly known as surgical extraction or an open extraction of a tooth. The method is employed when normal forceps extraction is not possible due to various difficulties. Generally if a tooth fractures during regular extraction, surgical approach is necessary to remove the root fragments.


Pit and fissure sealants are materials that are applied over the grinding surfaces of molars and premolars to seal the fissure and prevent dental caries. It is a safe, efficient and effective method of prevention of pits and fissure caries.

Pits and Fissures

  • A pit is defined as a pinpoint depression located at the junction of grooves present over the grinding surfaces of the teeth.
  • A fissure is defined as a deep cleft between adjoining cusps of a molar or premolar.

What is plaque?

Plaque on teeth (dental plaque) is a soft biofilm that coats the tooth surface and dental prosthesis. It is a substance made up of microorganisms, epithelial cells, debris and macrophages found covering the tooth surfaces. Dental plaque leads to the formation of tartar and may progress to dental caries (tooth cavities). It causes various periodontal diseases including gingivitis, periodontitis and periodontal pockets. Plaque control is a process of removal of microbial plaque present over the tooth surface and prevention of accumulation of the same.  The regular removal of plaque eliminates risk of various periodontal diseases and improves dental health.

What is a stainless steel crown?

Stainless steel crown is a semi-permanent restoration used in milk teeth and young permanent teeth. It is a metallic restoration containing chromium, nickel, iron and other minor elements. A stainless steel crown is a biologically compatible and clinically acceptable restoration. It maintains the form and function of the restored tooth and helps to retain the tooth vitality. It is a far more superior restoration to extensive amalgam restorations with respect to lifespan and replacement. Furthermore a stainless steel crown is a low cost restoration and the procedure is relatively easy to carry out.


Osteoradionecrosis is a condition characterized by non-viable, non-healing and aseptic lesions in bones undergoing radiation exposure. It generally affects the jaw bones after radiation therapy for treating cancers in the head and neck region. Radiation therapy not only destroys the tumor cells but also leads to damage to the normal architecture of the surrounding tissues. A key factor in osteoradionecrosis development is traumatic events such as tooth extraction.

What is glass ionomer filling?

Glass ionomer cement is a tooth-colored restorative material (filling) used in dentistry. The cement is known as glass ionomer because the powder contains glass particles and the cement forms ionic bonds with the tooth structure. The filling is a type of adhesive cement which bonds to the tooth structure chemically and therefore provides an excellent adaptation to the tooth surface. The cement is also known as polyalkenoate cement, GIC and ASPA (alumino silicate polyacrylic acid).

Temporomandibular Ankylosis Definition

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is commonly known as the jaw joint. It is formed by articulation between mandible (lower jaw) and temporal bone of the skull. Ankylosis is Greek word meaning “stiff joint”. Ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint refers to stiffening or fusion of the articular surfaces of the mandible and temporal bone on one or both the sides. It is characterized by facial asymmetry, limited jaw opening and deviation of the mandible.