Dr. Chris's Articles



What is tularemia?

Tularemia is an infectious disease, occurs due to infection by the bacteria Francisella tularensis. The most commonly affected organs are the skin, eyes, lungs and lymph nodes but rarely internal organs may also be affected. Tularemia may lead to number of complications like inflammatory changes in the protective covering of the brain, the meninges (meningitis), lung tissue (pneumonia), protective covering of the heart, pericardium (pericarditis) and infection of the bone (osteomyelitis). The disease spread from mammals, birds, fish and contact with infected soil, water or dead animals.

What is rabies?

Rabies is a viral disease where the infecting rabies virus is transmitted to humans through bite of infected dogs. However, in the United States, the infection may spread by other animals like coyotes, raccoons, bat and skunks. The disease is almost always fatal after the appearance of symptoms.

What is anorexia nervosa?

Anorexia nervosa is a type of eating disorder characterized by minimal intake of food, irrational fear of putting on weight and having distorted idea of being fat even if the person is underweight. Although any person from any age group, social or socioeconomic background may suffer from anorexia nervosa, the condition is more common in adolescent females.

Inadequate food intake leads to malnutrition and lack of energy, dizziness, weakness, irregular menstruation and other organic symptoms. Treatment options include restoration of normal body weight by a healthy diet, adequate counseling and medication to treat any associated psychiatric problem, if present.

What is whiplash?

Whiplash is a term used to describe injuries to the neck following sudden distortion of the neck that is mainly seen with motor vehicle accidents. The medical term ‘cervical acceleration-deceleration’ is used to refer to the mechanism by which whiplash injury is sustained and the term whiplash is used to describe the symptoms of the injury and the complications.


Transalveolar extraction is commonly known as surgical extraction or an open extraction of a tooth. The method is employed when normal forceps extraction is not possible due to various difficulties. Generally if a tooth fractures during regular extraction, surgical approach is necessary to remove the root fragments.



What is Malaria?

Malaria is an infectious disease characterized by repeated attacks of high fever with chills. The disease occurs due to infection by the Plasmodium parasite, which enters the body through biting of female Anopheles mosquito carrying the parasite. Malaria most commonly occurs in the tropical countries. Out of the five Plasmodium species of parasites, P.falciparum and P.vivax are responsible for most cases of malaria. Treatment options depend on the species of the infecting Plasmodium parasite, the severity of symptoms and age of the infected person.

What is mastitis?

Mastitis is the medical term for inflammation of the breast which occurs due to a bacterial infection of the breast tissue. It is characterized by painful breast swelling usually with high fever. The most common bacteria responsible for mastitis is Streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus, however other bacteria may also be responsible. Usually breastfeeding mothers are affected within one to three months of delivery. It can occur in non-pregnant women including after menopause.

Mastitis is women who are breastfeeding is known as lactation mastitis. The most serious complication of untreated mastitis is collection of pus in the breast tissue (abscess) which requires surgical management. Repeated attack of mastitis is quite common in women who have previously suffered from mastitis. Breastfeeding mothers should not discontinue nursing. Mastitis can be effectively treated with antibiotics and painkillers.


Carcinoma of the lip is the most common cancer to affect the vermilion zone of the lip. Cancer of the lower lip is a squamous cell carcinoma almost 90% of the times; where as the cancer of the upper lip is more often basal cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma involves the red colored part of the lip where as the basal cell carcinoma tends to involve the border of the lip at the junction of lip and skin.


Pit and fissure sealants are materials that are applied over the grinding surfaces of molars and premolars to seal the fissure and prevent dental caries. It is a safe, efficient and effective method of prevention of pits and fissure caries.

Pits and Fissures

  • A pit is defined as a pinpoint depression located at the junction of grooves present over the grinding surfaces of the teeth.
  • A fissure is defined as a deep cleft between adjoining cusps of a molar or premolar.

What is plaque?

Plaque on teeth (dental plaque) is a soft biofilm that coats the tooth surface and dental prosthesis. It is a substance made up of microorganisms, epithelial cells, debris and macrophages found covering the tooth surfaces. Dental plaque leads to the formation of tartar and may progress to dental caries (tooth cavities). It causes various periodontal diseases including gingivitis, periodontitis and periodontal pockets. Plaque control is a process of removal of microbial plaque present over the tooth surface and prevention of accumulation of the same.  The regular removal of plaque eliminates risk of various periodontal diseases and improves dental health.