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Archive for " November, 2012 "

Definition

Transalveolar extraction is commonly known as surgical extraction or an open extraction of a tooth. The method is employed when normal forceps extraction is not possible due to various difficulties. Generally if a tooth fractures during regular extraction, surgical approach is necessary to remove the root fragments.


25
Nov

Malaria

What is Malaria?

Malaria is an infectious disease characterized by repeated attacks of high fever with chills. The disease occurs due to infection by the Plasmodium parasite, which enters the body through biting of female Anopheles mosquito carrying the parasite. Malaria most commonly occurs in the tropical countries. Out of the five Plasmodium species of parasites, P.falciparum and P.vivax are responsible for most cases of malaria. Treatment options depend on the species of the infecting Plasmodium parasite, the severity of symptoms and age of the infected person.


What is mastitis?

Mastitis is the medical term for inflammation of the breast which occurs due to a bacterial infection of the breast tissue. It is characterized by painful breast swelling usually with high fever. The most common bacteria responsible for mastitis is Streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus, however other bacteria may also be responsible. Usually breastfeeding mothers are affected within one to three months of delivery. It can occur in non-pregnant women including after menopause.

Mastitis is women who are breastfeeding is known as lactation mastitis. The most serious complication of untreated mastitis is collection of pus in the breast tissue (abscess) which requires surgical management. Repeated attack of mastitis is quite common in women who have previously suffered from mastitis. Breastfeeding mothers should not discontinue nursing. Mastitis can be effectively treated with antibiotics and painkillers.


Definition

Carcinoma of the lip is the most common cancer to affect the vermilion zone of the lip. Cancer of the lower lip is a squamous cell carcinoma almost 90% of the times; where as the cancer of the upper lip is more often basal cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma involves the red colored part of the lip where as the basal cell carcinoma tends to involve the border of the lip at the junction of lip and skin.


Definition

Pit and fissure sealants are materials that are applied over the grinding surfaces of molars and premolars to seal the fissure and prevent dental caries. It is a safe, efficient and effective method of prevention of pits and fissure caries.

Pits and Fissures

  • A pit is defined as a pinpoint depression located at the junction of grooves present over the grinding surfaces of the teeth.
  • A fissure is defined as a deep cleft between adjoining cusps of a molar or premolar.

What is plaque?

Plaque on teeth (dental plaque) is a soft biofilm that coats the tooth surface and dental prosthesis. It is a substance made up of microorganisms, epithelial cells, debris and macrophages found covering the tooth surfaces. Dental plaque leads to the formation of tartar and may progress to dental caries (tooth cavities). It causes various periodontal diseases including gingivitis, periodontitis and periodontal pockets. Plaque control is a process of removal of microbial plaque present over the tooth surface and prevention of accumulation of the same.  The regular removal of plaque eliminates risk of various periodontal diseases and improves dental health.


Hives Definition

Hives, also known as uticaria, is a medical condition marked by the appearance of pale red itchy swellings on the skin. There are two types of hives, acute hives lasting for less than 6 weeks and chronic hives lasting for more than 6 weeks. An allergic reactions following certain food or drug intake is one of the main reasons of acute hives, whereas in most cases of chronic hives the cause remains unknown. Sometimes the skin rash is also accompanied by angioedema, swelling under the skin, and anaphylactic shock which is a potential fatal complication.  Mild hives usually does not require any treatment other than oral antihistamines but severe cases require hospital admission.


What is a stainless steel crown?

Stainless steel crown is a semi-permanent restoration used in milk teeth and young permanent teeth. It is a metallic restoration containing chromium, nickel, iron and other minor elements. A stainless steel crown is a biologically compatible and clinically acceptable restoration. It maintains the form and function of the restored tooth and helps to retain the tooth vitality. It is a far more superior restoration to extensive amalgam restorations with respect to lifespan and replacement. Furthermore a stainless steel crown is a low cost restoration and the procedure is relatively easy to carry out.


Hypoglycemia Definition

Hypoglycemia is the medical term for an abnormally low blood sugar (glucose) level below 70mg/dL. Although the blood glucose levels do fluctuate during the course of the day, it is usually maintained within a normal range. The most common reason behind hypoglycemia is due to the intake of drugs especially anti-diabetic drugs and other less common causes include insulin-secreting tumors and severe liver or kidney disease. To prevent permanent brain damage, hypoglycemic coma and death, the blood sugar level must be normalized with high sugary  foods like candy or intravenous glucose administration. The management of the underlying problem is essential to prevent repeat attacks of hypoglycemia.


Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Definition

A thrombosis in cavernous sinus is a blood clot present within the cavernous sinus. The clot tends to arise with a spread of bacteria from other body parts communicating with the sinus. The most common cause of cavernous thrombosis is infection from facial region, paranasal sinuses and dental complications. It is a life threatening condition requiring immediate medical intervention.